Impact Simulation Solution for Car Crash

According to the statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 1.25 million people around the world die from traffic accidents every year.

It is estimated that each year in Vietnam, there are more than 12,000 people killed by traffic accidents, especially cars that have frontal collisions, resulting in many casualties


Figure 1: Some actual images of car crashes (Source: Internet).

As a result, the design process for automobile safety structure in a frontal collision has become a research hotspot.

According to statistics, the head of the car is the most affected part of most frontal collisions. Therefore, drivers and passengers sitting next to them are often the victims of a fatal/deadly/dangerous accident. According to the studies, improving performances of the automobile headers can help reduce up to 7% of the dangers that drivers and passengers might have faced.

Since the 1950s, it has been assumed that the more rigid the car is, the safer it is. However, the actual study indicates that when an accident occurs, many injuries to the driver and passengers are caused by external impact forces "transmitting" through the hard chassis, of which result in serious injuries. Therefore, in 1959, Mercedes Benz first tested the crumple zone on the W111 model.

Simply, the crumple zone is a metal frame structure installed at the head and rear of the car, this metal frame has a softer design than other parts. The purpose is that when there is a strong frontal collision, they will absorb collision force and distort, bend, crouch and divert the impact forces away from the cabin frame in which/ where the driver and passengers seat.

In contrast, the door and frame of the passenger cabin have super hard design containing hard metal bars with a high level of thickness, reinforcing brace, etc. This design means to serve the purpose of avoiding deformation when a collision occurs.

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Figure 2: Safety structure of Volvo V60 bodywork (Source: Internet).

The only problem that scientists and engineers are dealing with is to optimize the crumple zone and increase the hardness for these parts such as car doors, cabins, ...

To solve this problem, based on the conventional test method, scientists use a testing car and directly collide it with a barrier. From the data obtained after the experimental collision ends, the team will evaluate to optimize the crumple zone and improve the structure as well as materials for car doors, cabins, ...


Figure 3: Experimental collision of cars (Source: Internet)

However, using experimental methods have limitations such as time-consuming as well as higher costs. With the advancement of Science and Technology, the application of engineering simulation software in industrial fields has become more and more popular.

Engineering simulation software has become a tool to assist in processing data, images, calculations for the fastest and most accurate results to support engineers, and by that saving time, and improve performance, productivity and efficiency.

The engineering simulation software is particularly useful in the car crash simulation problem, which determines the structure of the most absorbable impulse when a crash occurs. Since then, these offered solutions to optimize the car structure help balance the absorption capacity and bearing capacity of the car head frame structure and aim to ensure safety for drivers and passengers when a collision occurs.

Figure 4: The car crash simulation results using Ansys simulation software.

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